16. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Patients presenting with urinary incontinence
Bladder control problems are a common problem in older people and result from a variety of causes. Continence issues are an essential part of any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, and this guide examines the causes, assessment, management and treatments available.
17. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Weight loss and nutrition issues
Nutritional status can be easily assessed, and problems can often be addressed quickly. Key questions about diet, appetite and weight should be on the menu of any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.
18. CGA in Primary Care Settings: End of life care issues
End of life care refers specifically to the last few days or hours of life, when maintenance of comfort and dignity, and avoidance of pain and distress take priority. Many of the principles of care at the end of life are shared with CGA.
1. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Introduction
An introduction to CGA in primary care settings. This toolkit was developed by the British Geriatrics Society and has been endorsed by the ANCD for Older People and Integrated Person-Centred Care and by the Council of British Geriatrics Society, Scotland.
2. CGA in Primary Care Settings: The elements of the CGA process
An overview of how Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is done in the primary care setting, and what to consider when conducting the assessment.
3. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Physical Assessment
Examination of older patients incorporates all the typical aspects of clinical examination, although there are some general considerations and emphases that should be borne in mind, and specific examinations that may be more relevant in older people.
4. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Functional and social assessment
Functional assessment examines factors like mobility and daily living activities, and social assessment looks at social circumstances. Asking what the older person does and what environment they live in adds context to any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.
5. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Psychological components
Depression among the over-65s is often under-recognised, so CGA is not complete without assessing mental health. The assessment conversation also offers an opportunity to identify cognitive dysfunction which may be a sign of dementia or delirium.
7. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Creating a problem list
Creating a problem list as part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment can help identify all the issues to consider and will be helpful in drawing up a care plan.
6. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Medication review
Medication review is a core component of CGA. Older patients can have indications for multiple medications, some of which may be based on sound evidence, but others may do more harm than good. The evidence base for guideline based prescribing may not be so relevant to frail older people.
8. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Care and support planning
A reference guide to care and support planning within Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for primary care and community clinicians, including the recommended components and tips for creating a care plan.