The topic content is divided into the information types below
CGA issues: weight loss and nutrition
Nutritional status can be easily assessed, and problems can often be addressed quickly. Key questions about diet, appetite and weight should be on the menu of any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.
CGA issues: mental capacity
Assessment of mental capacity should be a routine part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment. This guide lays out the principles which govern testing mental capacity, advance care decisions and powers of attorney, along with the safeguards.
CGA issues: mobility and balance
Improving older people’s walking and balancing improves quality of life, reduces dependence on health and social care and prevents falls. This guide looks at the importance of taking a full history, assessing gait and balance, and referral to physiotherapy.
CGA issues: urinary incontinence
Bladder control problems are a common problem in older people and result from a variety of causes. Continence issues are an essential part of any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, and this guide examines the causes, assessment, management and treatments available.
CGA issues: end of life care
End of life care refers specifically to the last few days or hours of life, when maintenance of comfort and dignity, and avoidance of pain and distress take priority. Many of the principles of care at the end of life are shared with CGA.
CGA issues: falls
Often a key component of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in primary care, this guide examines step-by-step how to carry out a multifactorial risk assessment for falls.
Creating a problem list for CGA
Creating a problem list as part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment can help identify all the issues to consider and will be helpful in drawing up a care plan.
CGA issues: confusion and delirium
The prevalence of delirium in the community is 1-2 per cent but this rises to 14 per cent in people over 85, and in nursing homes or post acute care settings, can be up to 60 per cent. This guide deals with risk factors, diagnosis and management of this condition.
CGA issues: depression
Dealing with the management of depression as part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment including the treatments to consider.
Involving Social Services in CGA
CGA needs to consider the impact of social factors on the health and wellbeing of individuals and vice versa. Here we look at working with Social Services and the differences in the four nations of the UK.
Psychological components of CGA
Depression among the over-65s is often under-recognised, so CGA is not complete without assessing mental health. The assessment conversation also offers an opportunity to identify cognitive dysfunction which may be a sign of dementia or delirium.
The BGS toolkit for comprehensive geriatric assessment in primary care settings
An introduction to CGA in primary care settings. This toolkit was developed by the British Geriatrics Society and has been endorsed by the ANCD for Older People and Integrated Person-Centred Care and by the Council of British Geriatrics Society, Scotland.
The elements of the CGA process
An overview of how Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is done in the primary care setting, and what to consider when conducting the assessment.
Care and support planning in CGA
A reference guide to care and support planning within Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for primary care and community clinicians, including the recommended components and tips for creating a care plan.
Functional and social assessment in CGA
Functional assessment examines factors like mobility and daily living activities, and social assessment looks at social circumstances. Asking what the older person does and what environment they live in adds context to any Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.
CGA issues: bone health
Older people with frailty, those with reduced mobility and those with multiple co-morbidities are all susceptible to problems with bone health.
Helping older people in our care home stay connected
Joint activities such as art, sewing, knitting, cooking or growing plants help relationships grow between the generations.
This Practice Question has been published with the kind permission of the Royal College of Nursing.
Although much progress has been made in defining best practice, setting standards for delivery and improving the processes of care, there is still variability; there is no consistent delivery or outcomes.
Occupational Therapy: putting prevention at the heart of care
In its report Living Not Existing: Putting Prevention at the Heart of Care for Older People, the Royal College of Occupational Therapists seeks to show how doing the right thing for individuals can actually reduce their need for expensive care long-term.
Effective healthcare for older people living in care homes
Over 400,000 older people in the UK live in care homes, including nearly one in six over-85s, and they often have complex health and social care needs. We have produced guidance for commissioners to promote better models of medical care for care home residents.