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14. CGA in primary care settings: patients presenting with confusion and delirium
The prevalence of delirium in the community is 1-2 per cent but this rises to 14 per cent in people over 85, and in nursing homes or post acute care settings, can be up to 60 per cent. This guide deals with risk factors, diagnosis and management of this condition.
Nursing Perspectives on the Confusion Assessment Method
The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is used to detect delirium but its sensitivity is low when used in real-world settings. A study explored reasons for this through a series of focus groups with orthopaedic nurses at two academic hospitals in Hamilton, Canada.
How do I improve delirium care for older surgical patients?
Delirium is categorised by a sudden onset of fluctuating altered consciousness with changes to perception and cognitive function.
Mental Capacity and Deprivation of Liberty
Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards are protections for adults who lack mental capacity to consent to, say, admission to hospital or a care home for treatment or care. Caroline Cooke and Premila Fade assess why they are being reviewed and the Law Commission's proposals.
Dysphagia Management for Older People
Older patients frequently have dysphagia resulting from acute or chronic illnesses. Dysphagia management requires a collaborative approach because of the complexities of older patients' needs, and geriatricians have an important role to play in overseeing this condition.
BGS News, May 2018: What is John's campaign?
People with dementia are not children. They are adults with a lifetime’s experience. Yet they are not entirely dissimilar. They are vulnerable and they can be as distressed and disoriented as a child.
Clinical guidelines on delirium and loss of consciousness
Delirium can be confused with dementia but is potentially reversible if the causes are identified. Transient loss of consciousness, or blackouts, are very common, but diagnosis of cause is often inaccurate. NICE quality standards on each of these conditions.
Think frailty and delirium - the Scottish approach
Ten per cent of patients admitted to hospital as an emergency stay more than two weeks, using 55 per cent of all hospital bed days, and 80 per cent of that group are aged over 65 years. The average age of a hospital inpatient is over 80.
Clinical guidelines on mental health
Clinical guidelines and tailored resources from NICE on supporting people with dementia, mental wellbeing of older people in care homes and a video illustrating the NICE quality standards for mental wellbeing in care homes.
Mental capacity in the face of need for essential treatment
There is lack of clarity in the terminology used, and the difference between ‘holding’ and ‘restraint’. This presents a legal and professional dilemma for nurses.
Mental health - Helping an older person who is experiencing anxiety?
Feeling anxious from time to time is a normal human experience. When someone is anxious they might experience feelings of tension, nervousness, heightened awareness, fear or uncertainty, dry mouth and throat, and tightness in the chest.