Silver Book II: References

Good practice guide
Good practices guides focus on providing information on a clinical topic.
British Geriatrics Society
Date Published:
22 February 2021
Last updated: 
22 February 2021

This page contains the consolidated references cited in the Silver Book II.


1. Smith P, McKeon A, Blunt I, et al. NHS hospitals under pressure: trends in acute activity up to 2022. The Nuffield Trust [Internet] accessible from London, UK: Nuffield Trust 2014

2. Kingston A, Comas-Herrera A, Jagger C. Forecasting the care needs of the older population in England over the next 20 years: estimates from the Population Ageing and Care Simulation (PACSim) modelling study. Lancet Public Health 2018;3(9):e447-e55. doi: 10.1016/s2468-2667(18)30118-x [published Online First: 2018/09/04]

3. Kingston A, Robinson L, Booth H, et al. Projections of multi-morbidity in the older population in England to 2035: estimates from the Population Ageing and Care Simulation (PACSim) model. Age and Ageing 2018;47(3):374-80. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx201

4. Conroy SP, Bardsley M, Smith P, et al. Health Services and Delivery Research. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for frail older people in acute hospitals: the HoW-CGA mixed-methods study. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library

Copyright (c) Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2019. This work was produced by Conroy et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. 2019.

5. Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, et al. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet 2013;381(9868):752-62. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62167-9

6. Clegg A, Bates C, Young J, et al. Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using routine primary care electronic health record data. Age Ageing 2016;45(3):353-60. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw039 [published Online First: 2016/03/06]

7. Gilbert T, Neuburger J, Kraindler J, et al. Development and validation of a Hospital Frailty Risk Score focusing on older people in acute care settings using electronic hospital records: an observational study. Lancet 2018;391(10132):1775-82. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30668-8 [published Online First: 2018/05/01]

8. Reuben DB, Tinetti ME. Goal-oriented patient care--an alternative health outcomes paradigm. N Engl J Med 2012;366(9):777-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1113631 [published Online First: 2012/03/02]

9. Reuben DB, Jennings LA. Putting Goal-Oriented Patient Care Into Practice. J Am Geriatr Soc 2019;67(7):1342-44. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15885 [published Online First: 2019/03/19]

10. Heaven A, Brown L, Young J, et al. The Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE75+) study: an experimental ageing and frailty research cohort. BMJ Open 2019;in press

11. Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56(3):M146-56. [published Online First: 2001/03/17]

12. Mitnitski AB, Mogilner AJ, Rockwood K. Accumulation of deficits as a proxy measure of aging. ScientificWorldJournal 2001;1:323-36. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2001.58 [published Online First: 2003/06/14]

13. Clegg A, Rogers L, Young J. Diagnostic test accuracy of simple instruments for identifying frailty in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review. Age Ageing 2015;44(1):148-52. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu157 [published Online First: 2014/10/31]

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15. Rothman MD, Leo-Summers L, Gill TM. Prognostic significance of potential frailty criteria. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56(12):2211-116. doi: JGS2008 [pii]

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16. Rockwood K, Mitnitski A. Frailty in relation to the accumulation of deficits. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007;62(7):722-7. doi: 62/7/722 [pii] [published Online First: 2007/07/20]

17. Searle SD, Mitnitski A, Gahbauer EA, et al. A standard procedure for creating a frailty index. BMC Geriatr 2008;8:24. doi: 1471-2318-8-24 [pii]

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18. Gilbert T, Neuburger J, Kraindler J, et al. Development and validation of a Hospital Frailty Risk Score focusing on older people in acute care settings using electronic hospital records: an observational study. The Lancet 2018;391(10132):1775-82. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30668-8

19. Cigolle CT, Ofstedal MB, Tian Z, et al. Comparing models of frailty: the Health and Retirement Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009;57(5):830-9. doi: JGS2225 [pii]

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20. Kulminski AM, Ukraintseva SV, Kulminskaya IV, et al. Cumulative deficits better characterize susceptibility to death in elderly people than phenotypic frailty: lessons from the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56(5):898-903. doi: JGS1656 [pii]

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21. Sanders JL, Boudreau RM, Fried LP, et al. Measurement of organ structure and function enhances understanding of the physiological basis of frailty: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59(9):1581-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03557.x [published Online First: 2011/09/03]

22. Han L, Cleg A, Doran T, et al. The impact of frailty on healthcare resource use: a longitudinal analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England. Heslington, York, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Age Ageing, 2019.

23. Boddington P, Featherstone K. The Canary in the coal mine: Continence care for people with dementia in acute hospital wards as a crisis of dehumanization: Bioethics, 2018:251-60.

24. Barry MJ, Edgman-Levitan S. Shared decision making--pinnacle of patient-centered care. Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America: New England Journal of Medicine, 2012:780-1.

25. van der Kluit M, Dijkstra G, de Rooij S. The decision-making process for unplanned admission to hospital unveiled in hospitalised older adults: a qualitative study. Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, The Netherlands: BMC Geriatr, 2018:318.

26. Hollinghurst J, Fry R, Akbari A, et al. External validation of the electronic Frailty Index using the population of Wales within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank. Swansea, UK: Age Ageing, 2019:922-26.

27. Joseph-Williams N, Elwyn G, Edwards A. Knowledge is not power for patients: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of patient-reported barriers and facilitators to shared decision making. Cardiff, UK: Patient Educ Couns., 2014:291-309.

28. Elbourne HF, Hominick K, Mallery L, et al. Characteristics of patients described as sub-acute in an acute care hospital. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Can J Aging, 2013:203-8.

29. Elwyn G, Frosch DL, Kobrin S. Implementing shared decision-making: consider all the consequences. Hanover, NH, United States of America: Implement Sci., 2016:114.

30. Hominick K, Murray CA. What is "Dignity of Risk". Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2019.

31. Muscedere J, Waters B, Varambally A. The impact of frailty on intensive care unit outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 2017;43(8):1105–22.

32. Rumley-Buss A, Thompson D, Gladman J, et al. Improving acute care for older people at scale - the Acute Frailty Network. Acute Medicine 2016;15(4):165 - 220.

33. Negm A, Kennedy C, Thabane L. Management of Frailty: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019;20(10):1190–98.

34. Kojima G, Iliffe S, Walters K. Frailty index as a predictor of mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2018;47(2):193–200.

35. NHSI. Same-day acute frailty services: Published by NHS Improvement, NHS England, the Ambulatory Emergency Care Network and the Acute Frailty Network. Available online: [accessed 11 August 2019]. 2019

36. Kocman D, Regen E, Phelps K, et al. Can comprehensive geriatric assessment be delivered without the need for geriatricians? A formative evaluation in two perioperative surgical settings. Age Ageing 2019 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afz025 [published Online First: 2019/03/28]

37. Liu B, Moore JE, Almaawiy U, et al. Outcomes of Mobilisation of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON): a multisite interrupted time series evaluation of an implementation intervention to increase patient mobilisation. Age Ageing 2018;47(1):112-19. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx128 [published Online First: 2017/10/07]

38. Looman W. Facing Frailty: Exploring the Effectiveness of Integrated Care for Frail Older People: Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University, 2018. Int J Integr Care 2019(18):3. doi: 10.5334/ijic.4736

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40. Romero-Ortuno R, Wallis S, Biram R, et al. Clinical frailty adds to acute illness severity in predicting mortality in hospitalized older adults: An observational study. Eur J Intern Med 2016;35:24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.08.033 [published Online First: 2016/09/07]

41. Ellis G, Gardner M, Tsiachristas A, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;9:CD006211. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006211.pub3 [published Online First: 2017/09/13]

42. Ekerstad N, Ostberg G, Johansson M, et al. Are frail elderly patients treated in a CGA unit more satisfied with their hospital care than those treated in conventional acute medical care? Patient Prefer Adherence 2018;12:233-40. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S154658 [published Online First: 2018/02/16]

43. Wallis SJ, Wall J, Biram RW, et al. Association of the clinical frailty scale with hospital outcomes. QJM 2015;108(12):943-9. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcv066 [published Online First: 2015/03/18]

44. Ellis G, Gardner M, Tsiachristas A, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017(9):CD006211. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006211.pub3.

45. Rockwood K, Song X, MacKnight C, et al. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people.[see comment]. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005;173(5):489-95.

46. Wallis M, Marsden E, Taylor A, et al. The Geriatric Emergency Department Intervention model of care: a pragmatic trial. BMC Geriatrics 2018;18(1):297. doi: 10.1186/s12877-018-0992-z

47. Westgard T, Ottenvall Hammar I, Holmgren E, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment pilot of a randomized control study in a Swedish acute hospital: a feasibility study. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018;4:41. doi: 10.1186/s40814-018-0228-1 [published Online First: 2018/02/10]

48. Stagg A, Lutz H, Kirpalaney S, et al. Impact of two-step urine culture ordering in the emergency department: a time series analysis. BMJ Quality & Safety 2017 doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2016-006250

49. Pilotto A, Cella A, Pilotto A, et al. Three Decades of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: Evidence Coming From Different Healthcare Settings and Specific Clinical Conditions. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2017;18:192.e1-92.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2016.11.004

50. Jay S, Whittaker P, Mcintosh J, et al. Can consultant geriatrician led comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department reduce hospital admission rates? A systematic review. Age and Ageing 2016 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw231

51. Taylor JK, Gaillemin OS, Pearl AJ, et al. Embedding comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency assessment unit: the impact of the COPE zone. 2016;16:19-24.

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53. Wentworth L, Briggs S, Keelan R, et al. A comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department reduces admissions and length of stay. 2015;6:S22-S23.

54. Caplan G. Comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department. 2015;34:15.

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56. Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2014;63(5):e7-e25. doi:

57. Deschodt M, Flamaing J, Haentjens P, et al. Impact of geriatric consultation teams on clinical outcome in acute hospitals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine 2013;11(1):48.

58. Dent E, Martin FC, Bergman H, et al. Management of frailty: opportunities, challenges, and future directions. Lancet 2019;394(10206):1376-86. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31785-4 [published Online First: 2019/10/15]

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64. Bleijenberg N, Drubbel I, Schuurmans MJ, et al. Effectiveness of a Proactive Primary Care Program on Preserving Daily Functioning of Older People: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2016;64:1779-88. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14325

65. Blom JW, Van den Hout WB, Den Elzen WPJ, et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of proactive and multidisciplinary integrated care for older people with complex problems in general practice: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Age and Ageing 2018;47(5):705-14. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy091

66. Gwyther H, Shaw R, Jaime Dauden EA, et al. Understanding frailty: a qualitative study of European healthcare policy-makers' approaches to frailty screening and management. BMJ Open 2018;8(1):e018653. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018653 [published Online First: 2018/01/15]

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83. Fisher JM, Bates C, Banerjee J. The growing challenge of major trauma in older people: a role for comprehensive geriatric assessment? Age Ageing 2017;46(5):709-12. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx035 [published Online First: 2017/03/25]

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90. Carpenter CR, Shelton E, Fowler S, et al. Risk Factors and Screening Instruments to Predict Adverse Outcomes for Undifferentiated Older Emergency Department Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Acad Emerg Med 2015;22(1):1-21.

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92. Carpenter CR, Avidan MS, Wildes T, et al. Predicting Community-Dwelling Older Adult Falls Following an Episode of Emergency Department Care: A Systematic Review. Acad Emerg Med 2014 21(10):1069-82.

93. LaMantia MA, Messina FC, Hobgood CD, et al. Screening for Delirium in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review. Ann Emerg Med 2014;63(5):551-60.

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